Long time ago, since the Indonesian tourism department makes Gunung Kawi Temple / Penaka village as a tourism object, there are no certainty of earnings which would be obtained by villages. Most of the construction and maintenance of the temples as well ceremonial costs financed by the villagers through “peturunan” (traditional tax) that paid by the villagers to the village authority. Villagers only get profit from selling crafts, food and services to the tourists who visit here. Most villagers sells in the shops beside the stairs leading to the temple. (Traders who sells at the shops beside the street / parking lot mostly from other villages who hire shops around this village.)
Since the change in the policy of Indonesian tourism department, the village get a share of approximately 15% – 30% of the entrance ticket paid by visitors.
The government also helps maintain a building that was originally wholly financed by the villagers. Instead of it, the village required to take care of tourism activities. Villagers are assigned alternately to manage tourism without getting salary. Bendesa (Village Leader) then instructs Village Section to do it. Such as parking lots managed by “Balu Angkep”. Balu Angkep member was in charge of parking lot alternately every day. As well as Checkpoint that managed by “Desa Pengarep”.
Gunung Kawi Village Management
Gunung Kawi Village / Penaka is a traditional Village. Like the other traditional villages, this village has its own government. In ancient times, the village was under the rule of the king. Even after the kingdom collapsed and was replaced by the government of the Republic of Indonesia. The traditional village retains its own government. So there are two governance prevailing in the village, one is the Indonesian republic governance, and the other one from the government of the village itself.
The highest leadership in traditional village is “Bendesa”. If previously position of bendesa is derived based on descendants (monarchy), today bendesa elected by “desa pengarep” (democratically). Another position of village governance was the “Juru Raksa” (treasurer), Penyarikan (secretary) and some of section leader. All the traditional village leadership does not get a salary, they only get dispensation in performing their duties as the villagers.
There are some types of villagers;
Desa pengarep (main villagers)
Desa pengarep tasked with the main activity of the village, such as taking care of and repairing village buildings, create and providing a means for traditional ceremonies etc. Desa Pengarep also determine something that will be done by the village. For example, create rules and agreements that must be implemented by all the villagers.
Only desa pengarep who pay “peturunan” (traditional taxes), and only pengarep who elect and be elected into the village government. House in the traditional village usually consists of a few families, only the youngest family heads who become pengarep in Gunung Kawi village. In the home / yard there is only one desa pengarep. There are 60 peoples who became pengarep in Gunung Kawi Village
They served in the orchestra and some ceremonies, there’s only one person who becomes seke gong in every home.
Baris is a symbol of warriors, they consist of unmarried men with age about 17 to 35 years. They are tasked with making ornaments when performing the ceremony, dancing when the ceremonies, and help all the other activities in the village according to orders from Bendesa. There are about 55 people who became Baris in Gunung Kawi Village. Seke Baris led by Kelihan Baris. Kelihan Baris elected by member Seke Baris once every five times Galungan Holiday.
Rejang is a group of unmarried women. They consisted of women aged 17 to 30 years. Besides dancing and preparing a ceremonial appliance with Seke Baris, they also served to sing spiritual songs in the temple when the ceremony.
Balu Angkep / Pengele
Balu angkep led by Kelihan Pengele (Pengele Section Leader). Their assigned to assist the pengarep, for example picking the coconuts for the ceremony. or be pecalang (village traditional police)
Mangku were married couples assigned to conduct a holy act, such as leading prayer puja / pooja / nganteb, and doing things that should not be made by general public. There are only a pair of Mangku in Gunung Kawi, and new Mangku only selected if the couple had died. Need a long process as well a lot of rituals to be done to create new Mangku. Mangku usually selected from Desa Pengarep member